Fake Covid-19 vaccines

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With rising incidence of covid-19 cases, there is a high demand by countries to acquire vaccines, Africa not being excluded. There are different types of vaccines available in Africa, AstraZeneca vaccine, Sinopharm vaccine, Sputnik V vaccine and Pfizer vaccine. Many counties (e.g. Nigeria, Rwanda,Ghana) have acquired the vaccine while others (e.g. Tanzania, Burundi) are yet to acquire. Most African countries got the vaccine via the WHO covax scheme or by donation from other countries.

Currently many countries are still under vaccinated and it's estimated that 70 low income countries will still have 10% coverage by the year's end. There is undersupply of the available vaccine to meet the global demand.

It's important that we discuss fake doses now as this is a common fraud in our continent. What is the likelihood that there will be serious vaccine fraud?

Fake vaccine worth 2400 doses was discovered in South Africa in November last year. In February, a chinese syndicate was dismantled for packaging and selling water as covid-19 vaccine. Is it likely that there will be a transcontinental vaccine fraud? Do you suspect there will be more local vaccine fraud than there is fake anti-malarial?